DRUG PLANTS, their identification,usage,properties & effects

Everything you need to know about marijuana (cannabis)
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In the future, with the proper supporting research, kratom may have proven potential. However, there is no clinical evidence yet to support reported benefits.

Without this research, there are a lot of things about this drug that remain unknown, such as effective and safe dosage, possible interactions, and possible harmful effects including death. These are all things that you should weigh before taking any drug. Many people use kratom to self-treat symptoms of depression or anxiety. Although some evidence suggests that certain strains can successfully help….

Kratom's effects are similar to those of opioid drugs like morphine and heroin. Although kratom has been used as a treatment for opioid addiction, it…. Kava kava has been used for hundreds of years to promote relaxation, but is it safe? Here's all you need to know about kava. Opioids are highly addictive, regardless of whether they're prescribed or obtained illegally.

If you or a loved one use opioids for pain management…. Wild lettuce is used by people interested in alternatives to conventional pain medications. This article discusses the health benefits and potential…. Wild, weedy plants such as nettles, chickweed, and dandelion have been traditionally used to help move lymph and boost digestion after a long winter….

Meet gingko, grapeseed extract, echinacea, and six more powerful plants with science-backed health benefits. Natural remedies abound, but these are…. An herbalist shares step-by-step instructions for making your own natural remedies at home. Whip up therapeutic creams, oils, and salves with these 6….

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By making a strong herbal tea and adding it to your bathwater, you can get the full benefits of water-soluble plant medicine without leaving your tub…. For centuries, ginseng has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Garlic is used for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure. It has antimicrobial effects. Reports from small, short-term, and poorly described studies show that it may cause small reductions in total and LDL cholesterol.

But German research results on garlic's cholesterol-lowering effect have been distorted for a positive effect, the FDA says. Researchers are currently exploring garlic's possible role in preventing cancer. The FDA considers garlic safe.

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It should not be used with warfarin, because large amounts of garlic may affect clotting. For the same reason, large amounts should not be taken before dental procedures or surgery. Research suggests that ginger can relieve nausea caused by pregnancy or chemotherapy. Other areas under investigation are in surgery and for nausea caused by motion. Reported side effects include bloating, gas, heartburn, and nausea.

https://gladrekawind.cf Ginkgo leaf extract has been used to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, and tinnitus. It is also used to improve memory and to prevent dementia and other brain disorders. Some studies have supported its slight effectiveness. But exactly how gingko works isn't understood. Only extract from leaves should be used. Seeds contain ginkgo toxin.

Nutmeg and the DEA

This toxin can cause seizures and, in large amounts, death. Because some information suggests that ginkgo can increase the risk of bleeding, it should not be used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, anticoagulants, anticonvulsant medicines, or tricyclic antidepressants. Ginseng is used as a tonic and aphrodisiac, even as a cure-all.

Research is uncertain how well it works, partly because of the difficulty in defining "vitality" and "quality of life. Side effects are high blood pressure and tachycardia. It's considered safe by the FDA, but shouldn't be used with warfarin, heparin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, estrogens, corticosteroids, or digoxin.

People with diabetes should not use ginseng. Goldenseal is used to treat diarrhea, and eye and skin irritations.

Natural Products in Drug Discovery

It is also used as an antiseptic. Thus, this represents TLC fingerprint profile of the provided sample. The information so generated has a potential application in the identification of an authentic drug when compared with bioactive marker and it helps in maintaining the quality and consistency of the isolates or herbal drugs in natural drug discovery [ 18 ].

Column chromatography works on the principle of ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorption phenomenon. CC is a most useful technique for separation of active constituents with larger concentration. Sometimes fractions require another step for concentration. Displacement chromatography is a newer method that contains elution of bioactive compounds that have great affinity for the adsorbent.


Way Forward and Conclusions There is a pertinent need to renew scientific enthusiasm toward natural products for inclusion in drug discovery program. Foam test: the extract was mixed with water and shaken vigorously. Monthly newsletter. Teschke, R. NPDD natural product drug discovery activities work hand in hand and make use strongly with HTS, combinatorial chemistry, and genomics. Drug discovery is leading to be a challenging scientific task to find robust and viable lead candidates, which is nothing but the process flow from a screening of natural product to a new isolate that requires expertise and experience. It should not be used with medicines that can cause liver problems.

Fractions of elute materials can be more concentrated than the original solution placed in column. The column was prepared using silica for column chromatography.

Cardiovascular drugs

The fraction was dissolved in smallest possible volume of solvent and it was mixed with 2 gms of silica for column chromatography. Wet column or dry column packing can be done. Packing of column plays an important role in good quality separation. The mixture was dried to obtain free flowing powder and it was added to column. Then, the column was eluted with solvent of various proportions. Every eluent was collected in properly cleaned test tube separately for further studies to be carried out.

High performance liquid chromatography HPLC plays a mandatory role in isolation of natural products. It is a versatile and widely used technique for the isolation and identification. In the modern era, HPLC technique is becoming popular for studying separation, identification, and fingerprinting study for the quality control of herbal plants. Currently, this technique works as the main choice for research scientists. The multicomponent samples on both an analytical and preparative scale can be separated and studied more easily by HPLC.

Thus resolving power of HPLC is ideally used for the rapid processing of herbal extracts. HPLC instruments are designed in modular ways and they contain delivery pump for solvents and manual injection valve along with an auto-sampler. As sample is introduced in autosample, it carries toward the important part or heart of HPLC that is an analytical column, a guard column. Further, a detector, recorder, and printer are used to show a graphical representation on the software based or installed computer device. In every chemical separation, the working and result production differ due to the fact that certain compounds have different migration rates, which can be fulfilled using HPLC by utilizing a particular column and mobile phase as per the requirement for separations.

Trial and error concept is applied for developing new mobile phase along with prior knowledge of separation, its structure, and required solvent polarity or nonpolarity. Thus, the extent or degree of separation is based upon the choice of stationary phase or mobile phase. Generally, the identification and separation of phytochemicals can be achieved by using isocratic system that is using single mobile phase. Gradient elution sometimes can be used in which the proportion is altered from organic solvent to water. It also depends on time, and it may be desirable if more than one sample component is studied.

Or it also differs from each other significantly in retention of components with column as per the conditions achieved. Identification of any bioactive compound by HPLC selection of detector is again the next important step. Once the detector is selected and the setting is done, the assay may be developed by trial and error of solvent system.